什么是Psychopath

昨天跟舍友去一个朋友家吃火锅,度过了一个愉快的下午。

我们一行六个人都是PhD,包括EE、CS、linguistic、biochemistry这些专业,大家在一起聊了很多非常有趣的话题。

其中一个就是心理学上的psychopath,目前还没有很贴切的中文翻译(直译成精神病患者并不准确)。据说,psychopath由于大脑的原因,没有同理心,也就是说无法感受到别人的痛苦。他的一切所作所为都是为着自己的利益着想,在做损害他人的事情时也丝毫没有羞愧感,而且做起事来特别冷静。另外,虽然psychopath无法感受到别人的痛苦,但由于他非常聪明,可以模仿其他人的行为,假装自己能对别人的痛苦感同身受,从而伪装其自己。 继续阅读

如何应对文化冲击(译文)

来到美国有两个月了,渐渐开始适应这边的生活。前不久收到一封来自学校,主题为“Culture Shock”的邮件,作者是Steve Bryn,专门帮助国际新生的协调者(Student Resource Coordinator)。

我觉得这篇文章非常有用,想把它分享给其它的中国同学。经得Steve的同意后,我决定把它翻译成中文并贴在我的博客上。

Steven, thanks!


 

Culture Shock
文化冲击
作者:Steve Bryn
译者:许通
Do any of these sound familiar to you?
你是否觉得以下场景似曾相识呢?
-Are you sleeping too much or have insomnia?
-Do you feel lonely even around others?
-Are you bored?
-Do you find small problems overwhelming?
-Are you very homesick?
-Do you feel frustrated or anxious or irritable?
-Are you questioning your decision to come to KU or the US to study?
-你是否睡得过多或失眠?
-你是否在人群中仍感到孤独?
-你是否觉得无聊?
-是否觉得一丁点小问题也让你不堪重负?
-你是否非常想念家乡?
-你是否感到沮丧、焦虑或者急躁?
-你是否对自己作出到KU或者美国来学习的决定感到怀疑?
If you are experiencing any of these, know these are often the effects of Culture Shock.
如果你感受到以上的任何一条,这通常是文化冲击的影响。
Culture Shock describes the anxiety a person experiences when they move from their home culture to an entirely new cultural environment. As a new international student, when you move to a new country everything is unfamiliar; weather, food, language, social roles, customs – basically everything in your new life. Like any major life change this has definite reactions, many like the list above.
文化冲击一词,描述了当人从家乡搬到一个全新的文化环境时所经历的焦虑。作为一个新留学生,当你搬到一个新的国家时,周围的一切,例如天气、饮食、语言,社会角色和习俗等,对你来说都是陌生的。如同生活中任何重大的变化一样,这一定会带来一些冲击,比如前一段所述。
Culture Shock can also be explained as experiencing as the stages of the 4-F’s. Consider where you may be in the following stages:
文化冲击还分为不同的阶段,通常称为4-F(Fun、Flight、Fight、Fit)阶段。你可以思考一下自己现在处于以下哪种情况。
Fun- the stage of excitement and adventure of experiencing new people, things, places and opportunities.
第一阶段 – 乐趣(Fun)。在这个阶段中,你沉浸在遇到新的人们、新的食物、新的地方和新机会的兴奋中。
Flight- in this stage you experience the feeling of being unconnected and disoriented to your new surroundings and situation. In this stage there is often the urge to avoid everything which is different about your new experience. You may also feel isolated from your family, friends and culture at home.
第二阶段 – 飘飘然(Flight)。在这个阶段,你在新环境中感到举目无亲和晕头转向。在这个阶段,你往往有一种拒绝周围一切的冲动。你也可能会感到远离家人、朋友和家乡文化的孤独。
Fight- during this stage most people find themselves negatively comparing everything to how it is back home. For example you may be feeling the food here is bad, the people are stupid, back home we do it this way, etc. You may have an overall negative feeling about your experience.
第三阶段 – 争斗(Fight)。在这个阶段,大多数人会发现自己带着负面情绪把周围的一切跟家乡进行比较。例如,你可能会感觉这里的食物很难吃,当地人很愚蠢,回到故国我们会换一种方式做事,等等。你可能会对你的经历进行全盘否定。
Fit- this stage is often described as that point of equilibrium between your new cultural context and your home culture. Things aren’t as bad as they seemed, I kind of like the food, etc. Often there is a willingness to understand and embrace your new status as a “third culture child” where you have combined your new and home cultures.
第四阶段 – 适应(Fit)。在这一阶段,你已经在新的文化语境与家乡文化之间找到了平衡点。事情并不像他们看上去那么糟糕,而且自己倒是挺喜欢这里的食物,等等。通常你会期望理解和拥抱自己的新身份,即“第三文化的孩子”,在这里你已经将你遇到的新文化和家乡的文化进行了融合。
Regardless of what stage you find yourself in, the most important thing to remember is this process is normal. Everyone , EVERYONE, experiences this. You are not the only one going through this. Most people experience Culture Shock in stages; some people go through the stages multiple times. While it may take some time, you will begin to adjust to your new cultural surroundings. Don’t get discouraged.
无论你发现自己在哪个阶段,请记住,最重要的是这个过程是正常的。每个人都会经历这一过程,你不是唯一一个经历文化冲击的人。大多数人都经历文化冲击的某些阶段,有些人多次经历这些阶段。虽然它可能需要一些时间,但你会开始适应新的文化环境。请不要气馁。
Here are my “TOP 10 TIPS FOR DEALING WITH CULTURE SHOCK”
以下是我的“应对文化冲击的10条建议”
1. Remind yourself that what you are experiencing is normal.
2. Get some exercise! Regular exercise is a great way to relieve stress.
3. Remember to laugh, especially at yourself. Adjusting to a new culture is a challenge. Don’t take yourself too seriously; it will be easier if you keep your sense of humor.
4. Maintain your confidence. Focus on your goals and aspirations.
5. Eat heathy! That liter of “Cherry Garcia” ice cream might be good comfort food but a healthy diet will have longer lasting effects.
6. Maintain your ties at home. Skype, email, text, Tweet, FaceTime, phone calls, even old fashioned hand written letters are good ways to maintain contacts with family and friends back home.
7. Keep a journal or diary. Use this to express your feelings and emotions. There is no better place to get it all out than in a book no one else will see. It will also help you look back and see how far you’ve come.
8. Step outside you comfort zone. Get out there and make new friends. Try something you’ve never done. Stretch your limits. New experiences will expand your world.
9. Do not invest too much energy in things you cannot control. Do not over analyze what you are experiencing. Be in the moment and take advantage of new opportunities and experiences. You will have the rest of your life to figure out what these experiences mean.
10. Most importantly, ask for help if you need it. There are many resources on campus to help you in this journey.
1. 提醒自己,你所经历的是正常的。
2. 进行一些运动!有规律的运动是缓解压力的有效方法。
3. 记得保持幽默,尤其是对你自己。适应一个新文化是一个挑战。不要太把自己当回事,如果你保持你的幽默感,适应过程会变得更容易。
4.保持信心。专注于实现你的目标和抱负。
5. 保持健康饮食!尽管冰淇淋可能会是个美味食物,但一个健康的饮食习惯会产生更持久的有益效果。
6.保持和家乡的联系。 Skype、电子邮件、短信、FaceTime和电话,甚至旧式的手写信件都是保持与家人和朋友联系的很好方式。
7. 坚持写随笔或日记。借此来表达自己的感受和情绪。没有比记只有自己看得到的日记更好的方式了,它将帮助你回顾从前并审视你已经走了多远。
8. 走出你的舒适区。走出去结交新朋友,尝试一些你从来没有做过的事。挑战自己的极限。新的经历将会扩大你的世界。
9.不要在事情你无法控制的事情上投入太多精力。不要过分纠结于你正在经历的事情。活在当下,并积极抓住新机会和体验新经历。你将用自己的余生来发现这些经历的意义。
10.最重要的是,寻求帮助,如果你需要它。校园内有许多资源可以帮助你适应这一旅程。
Keep up the good work. Enjoy the ride and come see me if I can help.
保持好的表现,享受新的环境。需要帮助的话可以联系我。
ROCK CHALK JAYHAWK(KU的标语^_^)
“Culture Shock” by Steve Byrn,  used under CC BY / Desaturated from original

世界上所有的国家

世界上共有224个国家和地区,其中国家为193个,地区为31个。其中:

亚洲(48个国家)
东亚:中国、蒙古、朝鲜、韩国、日本(5)
东南亚:菲律宾、越南、老挝、柬埔寨、缅甸、泰国、马来西亚、文莱、新加坡、印度尼西亚、 东帝汶 (11)
南亚:尼泊尔、不丹、孟加拉国、印度、巴基斯坦、斯里兰卡、马尔代夫(7)
中亚:哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、塔吉克斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦、土库曼斯坦(5)
西亚:阿富汗、伊拉克、伊朗、叙利亚、约旦、黎巴嫩、以色列、巴勒斯坦、沙特阿拉伯、巴林、卡塔尔、科威特、阿拉伯联合酋长国(阿联酋)、阿曼、也门、格鲁吉亚、亚美尼亚、阿塞拜疆、土耳其、塞浦路斯(20)

Asia (48 countries)

East Asia: China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Japan (5)

Southeast Asia: Philippines, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, East Timor (11)

South Asia: Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives (7)

Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan (5)

West Asia: Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, Yemen, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Cyprus (20)

欧洲(43个国家/1个地区)
北欧:芬兰、瑞典、挪威、冰岛、丹麦 法罗群岛(丹)(6)
东欧:爱沙尼亚、拉脱维亚、立陶宛、白俄罗斯、俄罗斯、乌克兰、摩尔多瓦(7)
中欧:波兰、捷克、斯洛伐克、匈牙利、德国、奥地利、瑞士、列支敦士登(8)
西欧:英国、爱尔兰、荷兰、比利时、卢森堡、法国、摩纳哥(7)
南欧:罗马尼亚、保加利亚、塞尔维亚、马其顿、阿尔巴尼亚、希腊、斯洛文尼亚、克罗地亚、波斯尼亚和墨塞哥维那、意大利、梵蒂冈、圣马力诺、马耳他、西班牙、葡萄牙、安道尔(16)

Europe (43 countries / regions 1)

Nordic: Finland, Sweden, Norway, Iceland, Danmaifaluo Islands (Dan) (6)

Eastern Europe: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, Moldova (7)

Central Europe: Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein (8)

Western Europe: Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Monaco (7)

Southern Europe: Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Macedonia, Albania, Greece, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina Mexico, Italy, Vatican City, San Marino, Malta, Spain, Portugal, Andorra (16)

非洲(53个国家/6个地区)
北非:埃及、利比亚、苏丹、突尼斯、阿尔及利亚、摩洛哥、亚速尔群岛(葡)、马德拉群岛(葡)(8)
东非:埃塞俄比亚、厄立特里亚、索马里、吉布提、肯尼亚、坦桑尼亚、乌干达、卢旺达、布隆迪、塞舌尔(10)
中非:乍得、中非、喀麦隆、赤道几内亚、加蓬、刚果共和国(即:刚果(布))、刚果民主共和国(即:刚果(金))、圣多美及普林西比(8)
西非:毛里塔尼亚、西撒哈拉(注:未独立,详细请看:)、塞内加尔、冈比亚、马里、布基纳法索、几内亚、几内亚比绍、佛得角、塞拉利昂、利比里亚、科特迪瓦、加纳、多哥、贝宁、尼日尔、加那利群岛(西)(18)
南非:赞比亚、安哥拉、津巴布韦、马拉维、莫桑比克、博茨瓦纳、纳米比亚、南非、斯威士兰、莱索托、马达加斯加、科摩罗、毛里求斯、留尼旺(法)、圣赫勒拿(英)(15)

Africa (53 countries / 6 regions)

North Africa: Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Azores (Portugal), Madeira (Portugal) (8)

East Africa: Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Djibouti, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Seychelles (10)

Central Africa: Chad, Central Africa, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Republic of Congo (ie: Congo (Brazzaville)), the Democratic Republic of Congo (namely: the Congo (DRC)), Sao Tome and Principe (8)

West Africa: Mauritania, Western Sahara (Note: Not independent, detailed look at :), Senegal, Gambia, Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo , Benin, Niger, Canary Islands (West) (18)

South Africa: Zambia, Angola, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho, Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, Reunion (France), St. Helena (UK) (15)

大洋洲(14个国家/10个地区)
澳大利亚、新西兰、巴布亚新几内亚、所罗门群岛、瓦努阿图、密克罗尼西亚、马绍尔群岛、帕劳、瑙鲁、基里巴斯、图瓦卢、萨摩亚、斐济群岛、汤加、库克群岛(新)、关岛(美)、新喀里多尼亚(法)、法属波利尼西亚、皮特凯恩岛(英)、瓦利斯与富图纳(法)、纽埃(新)、托克劳(新)、美属萨摩亚、北马里亚纳(美)

Oceania (14 countries / 10 regions)

Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Palau, Nauru, Kiribati, Tuvalu, Samoa, Fiji, Tonga, the Cook Islands (New), Guam (US), New Caledonia (France), French Polynesia, Pitcairn Islands (UK), Wallis and Futuna (France), Niue (new), Tokelau (New), Samoa, Northern Marianas (US)

北美洲(23个国家/13个地区)
北美:加拿大、美国、墨西哥、格陵兰(丹)(4)
中美洲:危地马拉、伯利兹、萨尔瓦多、洪都拉斯、尼加拉瓜、哥斯达黎加、巴拿马(7)
加勒比海地区:巴哈马、古巴、牙买加、海地、多米尼加共和国、安提瓜和巴布达、圣基茨和尼维斯、多米尼克、圣卢西亚、圣文森特和格林纳丁斯、格林纳达、巴巴多斯、特立尼达和多巴哥、波多黎各(美)、英属维尔京群岛、美属维尔京群岛、安圭拉(英)、蒙特塞拉特(英)、瓜德罗普(法)、马提尼克(法)、荷属安的列斯、阿鲁巴(荷)、特克斯和凯科斯群岛(英)、开曼群岛(英)、百慕大(英)(25)

North America (23 countries / 13 regions)

North America: Canada, United States, Mexico, Greenland (Dan) (4)

Central America: Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama (7)

Caribbean: the Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Antigua and Barbuda, St. Kitts and Nevis, Dominica, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Grenada, Barbados, special Trinidad and Tobago, Puerto Rico (US), British Virgin Islands, United States Virgin Islands, Anguilla (UK), Montserrat (UK), Guadeloupe (France), Martinique ( law), Netherlands Antilles, Aruba (Netherlands), Turks and Caicos Islands (Britain), Cayman Islands (Britain), Bermuda (UK) (25)

南美洲(12个国家/1个地区)
北部:哥伦比亚、委内瑞拉、圭亚那、法属圭亚那、苏里南(5)
中西部:厄瓜多尔、秘鲁、玻利维亚(3)
东部:巴西(1)
南部:智利、阿根廷、乌拉圭、巴拉圭(4)

South America (12 countries / regions 1)

North: Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname (5)

Midwest: Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia (3)

East: Brazil (1)

South: Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay (4)

南极洲(0个国家/地区)

南极洲受到《南极条约》的保护冻结了所有国家南极领土的主权要求,规定南极只用于和平目的,可以说,南极现在不属于任何一个国家,它属于全人类。

扩展阅读:

[1] 世界上到底有多少个国家?(很好的知识!)

[2] 世界各国国家代号与区号

[3] 国家列表 (按洲排列) (Wikipedia)

[4] 世界人口 (Wikipedia)

[5] 亚洲国家和地区列表

[6] 欧洲国家和地区列表

[7] 非洲国家和地区列表

[8] 大洋洲国家和地区列表

[9] 北美洲国家和地区列表

[10] 南美洲国家和地区列表

 

To be or not to be

Outside the Bible, these six words are the most famous in all the literature of the world. They were spoken by Hamlet when he was thinking aloud, and they are the most famous words in Shakespeare because Hamlet was speaking not only for himself but also for every thinking man and woman. To be or not to be, to live or not to live, to live richly and abundantly and eagerly, or to live dully and meanly and scarcely. A philosopher once wanted to know whether he was alive or not, which is a good question for everyone to put to himself occasionally. He answered it by saying: “I think, therefore am.”
But the best definition of existence ever saw did another philosopher who said: “To be is to be in relations.” If this true, then the more relations a living thing has, the more it is alive. To live abundantly means simply to increase the range and intensity of our relations. Unfortunately we are so constituted that we get to love our routine. But apart from our regular occupation how much are we alive? If you are interest-ed only in your regular occupation, you are alive only to that extent. So far as other things are concerned–poetry and prose, music, pictures, sports, unselfish friendships, politics, international affairs–you are dead.
Contrariwise, it is true that every time you acquire a new interest–even more, a new accomplishment–you increase your power of life. No one who is deeply interested in a large variety of subjects can remain unhappy; the real pessimist is the person who has lost interest.
Bacon said that a man dies as often as he loses a friend. But we gain new life by contacts, new friends. What is supremely true of living objects is only less true of ideas, which are also alive. Where your thoughts are, there will your live be also. If your thoughts are confined only to your business, only to your physical welfare, only to the narrow circle of the town in which you live, then you live in a narrow cir-conscribed life. But if you are interested in what is going on in China , then you are living in China ~ if you’re interested in the characters of a good novel, then you are living with those highly interesting people, if you listen intently to fine music, you are away from your immediate surroundings and living in a world of passion and imagination.
To be or not to be–to live intensely and richly, merely to exist, that depends on ourselves. Let widen and intensify our relations. While we live, let live!

Command Line Interface Basics

The directory structure on your computer looks something like this
Dir_structure

CLI Basics
In your CLI prompt, type pwd and press enter.
This will display the path to you’re working directory.
As you can see we get the prompt back after entering a command.
CLI_window
CLI Commands
CLI commands follow this recipe: command flags arguments
command is the CLI command which does a specific task
flags are options we give to the command to trigger certain behaviors, preceded by a –
arguments can be what the command is going to modify, or other options for the command
Depending on the command, there can be zero or more flags and arguments
For example pwd is a command that requires no flags or arguments
pwd displays the path to the current working directory
clear will clear out the commands in your current CLI window

ls lists files and folders in the current directory ls -a lists hidden and unhidden files and folders ls -al lists details for hidden and unhidden files and folders Notice that -a and -l are flags (they’re preceded by a -) They can be combined into the flag: -al

cd stands for “change directory” cd takes as an argument the directory you want to visit cd with no argument takes you to your home directory cd .. allows you to change directory to one level above your current directory

mkdir stands for “make directory” Just like: right click -> create new folder mkdir takes as an argument the name of the directory you’re creating

touch creates an empty file

cp stands for “copy” cp takes as its first argument a file, and as its second argument the path to where you want the file to be copied
cp can also be used for copying the contents of directories, but you must use the -r flag The line: cp -r Documents More_docs copies the contents of Documents into More_docs

rm stands for “remove” rm takes the name of a file you wish to remove as its argument

You can also use rm to delete entire directories and their contents by using the -r flag Be very careful when you do this, there is no was to undo an rm

mv stands for “move” With mv you can move files between directories
You can also use mv to rename files

echo will print whatever arguments you provide

date will print today’s date

Summary:
pwd clear ls cd mkdir touch cp rm mv date echo

一封加州理工教授写给博士后的邮件

在美国UCF读博的师兄发来一张图,让我很惊讶。这位加州理工的教授居然要求他的博士后晚上和周末都来实验室工作,而且说这很正常,甚至威胁说如果不来的话就考虑换人。美国大学教授真的这么push吗?还是说这只是特例?

a_letter

参考链接:

1. I expect you to correct your work-ethic immediately

2. Something Deeply Wrong With Chemistry

3. “I have noticed that you failed to come into the lab on several weekends”

4. Chemist who ordered night and weekend work replies to critics 

华电通信专业本科课程中英文翻译

要开始申请留学了,才发现本科学校居然没有官方的英文成绩单。从侧面说明华电出国留学的人真少啊(⊙v⊙)

花了1天多的时间,总算把本科成绩单翻译成英文了。明天回华电盖章~

中英对照如下:

大一(2008—2009年)

         科     目 Subject
体育(1) Physical Education 1
工程制图 Graphing of Engineering
通信导论 Introduction to Communication
入学教育及军训 Military Training
大学英语(1) College English 1
大学计算机基础 Fundamentals of Computer
线性代数 Linear Algebra
高等数学B(1) Advanced Mathematics B(1)
思想道德修养与法律基础 Morality Education and Fundamentals of Law
体育(2) Physical Education 2
物理实验(1) Physical Experiment 1
中国近现代史纲要 Compendium of Neoteric & Modern Chinese History
中国古近代思想史 History of Ancient and Modern Chinese Thoughts
高等数学B(2) Advanced Mathematics B(2)
改变世界的物理学 Physics Changing the World
涉外知识 Knowledge of Foreign Affairs
高级语言程序设计(C++) C++ Programming
大学物理(1) College Physics 1
大学英语(2) College English 2
电路理论(1) Theory of Circuit 1
电路实验(1) Circuit Experiment 1
电子工艺实验 Experiment of Electronic Craft
复变函数与积分变换 Functions of Complex Variable and Integral Transforms
大学英语(4) College English 4
机器人控制技术基础 Fundamentals of Robot Control Technology

继续阅读

苹果macbook操作技巧

剪切文件:按下Command + C,粘贴时使用Option + Command + V

在Finder中打开个人文件夹:Command + Shift + H

退出程序:Command + Q

快捷键打开文件夹:第一种方法是 Command + o;第二种方法是 Command + ↓

进入当前目录的上一级目录:Command + ↑

无格式粘贴(paste without formatting):Command + Shift + Option + V

删除垃圾篓里特定文件:1.打开终端,cd ~/.Trash;2.查看文件列表,ls -l;3.删除文件,rm 文件名;4.删除文件夹,rm -r 文件夹名。

打开多个QQ:单击QQ,再Command + N